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常见的几种紧固件种类

作者(zhe):admin 发布时(shi)间:2020-05-25 09:08:29点击(ji):625

  紧(jin)固(gu)件在各种机械、设备、车辆、船(chuan)舶、铁路、桥梁、建筑、结构、工具、仪器、化(hua)工、仪表和用品等(deng)上面(mian)(mian)都(dou)可以(yi)看到,各式(shi)各样的(de)紧(jin)固(gu)件是应用最广(guang)泛的(de)机械基础(chu)件。它的(de)特点是品种规格(ge)繁(fan)多,性能(neng)用途各异,而且(qie)标(biao)准(zhun)化(hua)、系(xi)列化(hua)、通用化(hua)的(de)程度也极(ji)高。常见的(de)紧(jin)固(gu)件种类有螺(luo)栓、螺(luo)柱、螺(luo)钉、螺(luo)母、自攻螺(luo)钉等(deng)产品,下面(mian)(mian)亿(yi)达渤润就简单的(de)介(jie)绍下这几类产品:


  2.螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)柱:没(mei)有头部的(de)(de)仅(jin)有两(liang)(liang)端(duan)均(jun)外带(dai)螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)纹的(de)(de)一(yi)类(lei)紧(jin)固件(jian)。连接(jie)(jie)时。另一(yi)端(duan)穿(chuan)过带(dai)有通孔(kong)的(de)(de)零件(jian)中,然后旋上螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)母,即使(shi)这(zhei)(zhei)两(liang)(liang)个零件(jian)紧(jin)固连接(jie)(jie)成一(yi)件(jian)整(zheng)体(ti)。这(zhei)(zhei)种连接(jie)(jie)形(xing)式称为螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)柱连接(jie)(jie),也是属于(yu)可拆卸连接(jie)(jie)。主要用(yong)(yong)于(yu)被(bei)连接(jie)(jie)零件(jian)之一(yi)厚度较大、要求结(jie)构紧(jin)凑,或因拆卸频繁,不宜采用(yong)(yong)螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)栓连接(jie)(jie)的(de)(de)场(chang)所。按用(yong)(yong)途可以分为三类(lei):机(ji)器螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)钉(ding)、紧(jin)定螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)钉(ding)和特殊用(yong)(yong)途螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)钉(ding)。机(ji)器螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)钉(ding)主要用(yong)(yong)于(yu)一(yi)个紧(jin)定螺(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)纹孔(kong)的(de)(de)零件(jian)。


  3.螺(luo)(luo)钉(ding):也(ye)是由头部(bu)和(he)螺(luo)(luo)杆两部(bu)分构成的一(yi)类紧固(gu)件。与一(yi)个(ge)带有(you)通(tong)孔的零(ling)(ling)件之(zhi)间的紧固(gu)连(lian)(lian)接(jie),不需要螺(luo)(luo)母(mu)配(pei)合(这种(zhong)连(lian)(lian)接(jie)形(xing)式称为(wei)螺(luo)(luo)钉(ding)连(lian)(lian)接(jie),也(ye)属于可拆卸连(lian)(lian)接(jie);也(ye)可以与螺(luo)(luo)母(mu)配(pei)合,用于两个(ge)带有(you)通(tong)孔的零(ling)(ling)件之(zhi)间的紧固(gu)连(lian)(lian)接(jie)。紧定螺(luo)(luo)钉(ding)主要用于固(gu)定两个(ge)零(ling)(ling)件之(zhi)间的相对位(wei)置(zhi)。特殊(shu)用途螺(luo)(luo)钉(ding)例如有(you)吊(diao)环(huan)螺(luo)(luo)钉(ding)等供(gong)吊(diao)装零(ling)(ling)件用。形(xing)状(zhuang)一(yi)般呈显为(wei)扁六角柱(zhu)形(xing)。


  4.螺(luo)母(mu):带有内螺(luo)纹孔。也有呈扁方(fang)柱(zhu)(zhu)形(xing)或扁圆柱(zhu)(zhu)形(xing),配合螺(luo)栓、螺(luo)柱(zhu)(zhu)或机(ji)器螺(luo)钉,用(yong)(yong)于(yu)紧(jin)固连接两(liang)个(ge)零(ling)件(jian),使之成为一件(jian)整体(ti)。但螺(luo)杆上(shang)的螺(luo)纹为专用(yong)(yong)的自攻螺(luo)钉用(yong)(yong)螺(luo)纹。用(yong)(yong)于(yu)紧(jin)固连接两(liang)个(ge)薄(bo)的金属(shu)构件(jian)。


  5.自攻螺(luo)(luo)钉:与机(ji)器螺(luo)(luo)钉相(xiang)似。使之(zhi)成(cheng)为一件(jian)(jian)整体,构件(jian)(jian)上需要(yao)事先制出小孔(kong),由于这(zhei)种(zhong)(zhong)螺(luo)(luo)钉具有较高的硬度,可以直接(jie)旋入构件(jian)(jian)的孔(kong)中(zhong),使构件(jian)(jian)中(zhong)形成(cheng)响(xiang)应的内(nei)螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)。这(zhei)种(zhong)(zhong)连接(jie)形式(shi)也是属(shu)于可拆卸(xie)连接(jie)。但螺(luo)(luo)杆上的螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)为专用的木螺(luo)(luo)钉用螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)。


  6.木螺钉(ding):也(ye)是与机器螺钉(ding)相(xiang)似(si)。冷镦机生产的(de)木螺钉(ding),可以直接旋(xuan)入木质构(gou)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(或零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian))中(zhong),用于把一(yi)个(ge)带(dai)通(tong)孔的(de)金(jin)属(shu)(或非金(jin)属(shu))零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)与一(yi)个(ge)木质构(gou)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)紧固连(lian)接在一(yi)起。这种连(lian)接也(ye)是属(shu)于可以装配连(lian)接。起着增大被连(lian)接零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)接触外(wai)表面积。


  7.垫圈:形(xing)状呈扁圆环(huan)形(xing)的(de)(de)一类紧固件。置于螺(luo)栓、螺(luo)钉或螺(luo)母的(de)(de)支撑面与连(lian)接(jie)零(ling)件外表(biao)之间。降低单位面积压力和维护被连(lian)接(jie)零(ling)件外表(biao)不被损坏(huai)的(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong);另一类弹性垫圈,还能起着阻止(zhi)螺(luo)母回松的(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)。起着阻止(zhi)轴上(shang)(shang)或孔上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)零(ling)件左(zuo)右移(yi)动的(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)。


  紧固(gu)件(jian)虽(sui)然(ran)种类繁(fan)多(duo),但多(duo)以(yi)冷(leng)(leng)镦机(ji)和(he)攻(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)牙机(ji)配合进行(xing)生产,首先(xian)使(shi)用(yong)冷(leng)(leng)镦机(ji)对工(gong)(gong)件(jian)毛(mao)坯进行(xing)塑(su)形,然(ran)后(hou)使(shi)用(yong)攻(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)牙机(ji)制作(zuo)螺纹。在冷(leng)(leng)镦机(ji)塑(su)型(xing)加工(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)中,对于金(jin)属(shu)加工(gong)(gong)油(you)(you)的抗磨性(xing)能要求相(xiang)对较高(gao),通常(chang)使(shi)用(yong)以(yi)硫化(hua)猪油(you)(you)主要添(tian)加剂的冷(leng)(leng)镦成(cheng)(cheng)型(xing)油(you)(you)来生产;而在攻(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)牙机(ji)攻(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)螺纹时则属(shu)于小进给(ji)量的切削(xue)工(gong)(gong)艺,应(ying)选用(yong)含有硫化(hua)脂(zhi)肪酸酯(zhi)的专用(yong)攻(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)丝油(you)(you)。使(shi)用(yong)适合的金(jin)属(shu)加工(gong)(gong)油(you)(you)可以(yi)大幅度的提高(gao)加工(gong)(gong)效率,并能有效的增加工(gong)(gong)件(jian)表(biao)面光洁度,延长设备(bei)的使(shi)用(yong)寿命,从而降低企(qi)业的综合成(cheng)(cheng)本。

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